Course Critique (Final Assignment)

For me the major takeaway from this course is definitely the importance of the empathize phase. In order to better understand customer’s needs, our customer has to be defined very precisely with a persona. A persona is a marketing technique used to point out information about demographic, employment, character of the research group. I have also learned that if a company wants to truly empathize with their customer and learn more about their customers behaviours they should, in addition to a classical persona description, investigate how their potential target group spends their time. The questions sets “Close to you, digital ecosystem, typical weekday” proved to be very insightful since they provide more details on the how the customer consumes data, which becomes more and more important in today’s data driven world. Such insight proved to be especially important when my group started discussing how our target group should find our prototype and what would be the perfect format to present it. While first conducting the mentioned exercises, I thought the outcomes are obvious since I knew some of the people being interviewed very well. The truth was that some of their habits, preferences and statements I didn’t expect. As a result, I learned that during the empathize phase a researcher should not assume that the obvious is true or that he truly understands the target group without conducting further research.

Another big learning in this course was the importance of critique. Getting feedback is essential to help you save time and resources in the Prototype and Testing stages of the Design Thinking process. Being quick and efficient allows us to move from creating a prototype, to putting it out to test it, to gathering feedback, and finally to creating a new and improved iteration of our ideas. Before doing this course, I tried to avoid critique since I always assumed it will be something negative that will bring me of track from my idea. Which was not far away from the truth since a lot of people don’t know how to give a helpful critique. During previous group projects at work and university, the critiques I received were often vague and sometimes I took a bad critique personally, so I tried to avoid when possible. However, in this course I learned that critique in necessary step in product improvement and must not be taken personally because half-hearted feedback as “yeah, looks fine” doesn’t add any value to the project. Furthermore, in order to get the most out it, the critique has to be steered and questioned in order to get most out of it. I got the opportunity to practice the skill of guiding the critique in the right direction as part of the interviews for Assignment 3. I tried to find out what part especially did the interviewees like or dislike about the prototype, why did they like it, and most importantly how it could be improved. Defining problems in obvious, conventional ways, often leads to obvious, conventional solutions. Asking a more interesting question can help teams discover more-original ideas. The constructive feedback is something I found very useful especially when it was backed up by data or logical reasoning.

I believe that the 4 assignment gave us an excellent insight in how a real-life innovation process looks like. The only step that might is redundant would be the phase 1 “Building Empathy: Immerse & Plan Research” since it created a lot of confusion in the group. We were unsure based on which factors we should choose the persona and whether we should discuss how the KLRU should be related to the persona. The real understanding of the persona came to me only after I finished phase 2 “Phase 2 – Defining the Challenge: Analyze Insights & Create Challenge Statements” where we made actual interviews with representatives of the persona gained key insights.

As we have seen through the semester, the structure of design thinking creates a natural flow from research to rollout. According to HBS Design Thinking is the framework to drive innovation in a company because the immersion in the customer experience produces data, which is transformed into insights, help teams agree on design criteria they use to brainstorm solutions. Assumptions about what’s critical to the success of those solutions are examined and then tested with rough prototypes that help teams further develop innovations and prepare them for real-world experiments. Some experienced designers have a different opinion and complain that design thinking is too structured and linear. After completing the course my opinion is that design thinking is an excellent tool for professionals that are involved in an innovative project, have to manage teams of people who are not designers and also aren’t used to doing face-to-face research with customers or getting deeply immersed in their perspectives, and designing and executing experiments. Structure and linearity help the project members to try and adjust to these new behaviours and quite frankly I wouldn’t change anything to the process itself since I was astonished by the quality of the end results. Regarding the organisation of the class time I really liked the open discussions and experience sharing from my classmates. The instructor did a great job in moderating these discussions and enriching them with practical examples from past projects he did and companies he worked in. The final project stimulated group discussions as the project structure included multiple phases of diverging and converging. In the diverging phases we had to open our self to new ideas and help our teammates to create new ideas. In the diverging phases we provided each other critiques and agreed on the best ideas to proceed with. While the assignment instructions encouraged the use of articles and slides provided on canvas, it was often difficult to navigate through the slides since they include many pictures and the parts needed to finish the assignment are scattered across the whole presentation. Even though every presentation did have a conclusion, it was not detailed enough to completely understand the whole content. I would suggest more elaborative slides for the next lecture or even a book to dive in some parts of the design thinking.


Storytelling – Braking Down a Story

Photo by Aaron Sebastian on Unsplash


We can easily claim that storytelling is, has always been and will always be an important part of human communication. Obviously, a story´s first and basic purpose is to entertain, but also to achieve several other objectives. Stories represent one of our most effective form of communication and we use them on a daily basis in order to educate our children, motivate people, send particular messages, make an information memorable and, of course, sell products. This fact was also recognised by powerful brands around the world. They are aware of what a good story can bring to a business and its bottom line.
Every year at this time, people talk about the most famous Super Bowl ad of them all, Apple’s “1984” ad for the original Macintosh computer. It ran in its full 60-second length on national television during the third quarter of Super Bowl XVIII on Jan. 22, 1984. The plot is based on George Orwell’s grimly predictive novel, also named “1984.”

Storyline format

The Apple’s “1984” ad begins in grey ambient, with an army of drones marching into an assembly as a Big Brother figure preaches from a towering screen: “Today we celebrate the first glorious anniversary of the Information Purification Directives …” The scene is intercut with shots of a blond woman in a white tank top and bright red shorts on the run, carrying a mallet, pursued by storm troopers. She bursts into the assembly and throws the mallet at the screen, unleashing an explosion and a blast of fresh air, as a voice-over reads the text of a product launch scheduled for two days hence: “On January 24th, Apple Computer will introduce Macintosh. And you’ll see why 1984 won’t be like ‘1984.’”
The Apple’s “1984” ad is in my opinion a masterpiece of storytelling due to of its conciseness. The author managed to reach buyers heart rather than their minds and establishing a strong connection with consumers in only 60 seconds. While there are many good stories, very few manage to engage customers and evoke interest in such a short time.
Many authors explain the storytelling technique used in the Apple’s “1984” ad as the “Monster”. Overcoming the monster is essentially where the hero needs to overcome hardship in order to restore balance to the world. The monster could typically be addiction, illness, debt or bad health, but it is just as likely to be progress. The monster in this case is a strong force that keeps the entire population under control. People are not free and have no possibility to choose what they want. They only have one choice (in this ad the author alludes to IBM, but in later ads Apple will point to Microsoft) and we cannot freely express ourselves when it comes to the decision which personal computer should we chose. The young women represent the hero who defeats the monster. Apple is portraited as a new strong player with its Macintosh computers, and frees the mankind of its corporate oppressors.
In addition to the “Monster” storyline framework, I have also identified another concept often used in storytelling called “in medias res”. Or at least a version of it. Apple’s “1984” ad begins in the heart of the action. During an assembly of big brother solders, a blond woman in a white tank top and bright red shorts is on the run, carries a mallet, and is pursued by storm troopers. The audience’s attention is caught already in the very beginning and they stay engaged to find out how this bizarre and unexpected scene will be resolved.
In the next scene, the author doesn’t start over at the beginning to explain how the blond woman in a white tank top and bright red shorts found it self in the situation, what a usual “in medias res” storyline would do but instead continues the scene. The author most likely chose this hybrid form of the “in medias res” storyline due to the limited time he had to convey his message. Therefore, the following scene already brings the resolution everybody was waiting for. The blond woman in a white tank top and bright red shorts destroys the screen of the big brother and creates an explosion.


I chose the Apple’s “1984” ad instead of a longer story as for instance a movie or book, because I believe that the storytelling behind it, can teach us how to prepare for important presentations where we will have a very limited time to bring our message across. Furthermore, in business context we will rarely be in situations where we have enough time to make a long story. Analysing the storytelling behind the Apple’s “1984” ad can be applied to many business situations such as start-up pitching or presentation for executives. Using storytelling techniques as “in media res” and “the monster” are the best for presentations where the presenter needs to grab attention from the start, keep an audience craving resolution and focusing attention on an important moment.

What makes people and organizations more creative ?

I this blog I will discuss the creative capacities of a company, an individuals’ role in creating creative ideas in a company, common assumptions about the creative process that new researches have proven wrong. Innovation and creativity are something that everybody is confronted eventually, but in this blog I will limit creativity to the creative process inside a company and professionals working in companies.

1.  What are your personal experiences with organizational creativity?  Have you worked at companies that felt or behaved in ways that made them more creative or, even, especially uncreative?

When speaking about organisational capabilities managers usually think about key resources, processes, corporate culture, skills… Even though creativity can be indirectly derived from the capabilities above, the most successful companies like Apple and Google present creativity not only as separate organisational capability but even as a competitive advantage.  The importance if creativity is already highlighted during the recruiting process where candidate must prove that they are able to think out of the box. In addition, many managers incentivise their employees to take time off during the day and work on something outside of everyday work. According to the WSJ (2013) creativity is difficult to plan and employees get inspiration very often while doing something completely unrelated to everyday work. Finally, the most obvious way for company to drive creativity is the office design. According to John Lehrer from the New Yorker “Steve Jobs created open offices that should boost creativity and collaboration. But he soon realized that it wasn’t enough simply to create an airy atrium; he needed to force people to go there. He began with the mailboxes, which he shifted to the lobby. Then he moved the meeting rooms to the centre of the building, followed by the cafeteria, the coffee bar, and the gift shop. Finally, he decided that the atrium should contain the only set of bathrooms in the entire building. “and as usual, employees thought that it was waste of time, but soon they started admitting that they started running into unexpected people and speak about completely new topics.


I personally have worked in a working environment where the management based its vision on innovation and agility, but the creativity was wrecked by many years of focus on processes, automatization, individual work in separate offices and cost cutting. I will come back to this at point 2. Individual creativity.


2.  Do you think you, as an individual, are even capable of being creative by yourself?  And, better yet, do you think a group within an organization is capable of being creative? 

According the WSJ it is possible to be creative by yourself. Entrepreneurial people, for example, have ideas about everything all the time. Creativity and self-motivation in trait that many top managers share. However, not everybody can be creative individually. Most people need to train creative thinking and use it actively. If an average employee is not engaged in creative thinking for many years, they turn lazy and start simply relaying on the existing processes. During my previous working experience, I was working in a company that was the synonym for bureaucracy for many years. The new management tried to change it but soon recognised that the employees lost the ability to work creatively.  So, the tried to create creative groups where employees would in new projects, workshops where they could work on a creative solution as a group. Brainstorming was used as creative framework most of the time, and the results were miserable. A grey room full of people, looking at each other all confused and trying to come up with creative ideas in a few hours. While I think brain storming and engagement in groups were a good start, I will explain in point 3. the shortfalls and most common fallacies related to brainstorming.


3.  What do you think about the idea of different creative types of problems and, thus, different creative processes?  Should we trust ourselves just to know or sense when we need one type of approach versus another?

I believe that is also possible to create creative results the old-fashioned way, by simply thinking about an issue and waiting for an “aha” moment. There are many examples where bottom up ideas have been applied and created a great success, as the Frappuccino in Starbucks, where an employee had idea that the Frappuccino would be perfect for warm summer days.

However, most companies don’t want to rely on pure luck and hope that one of the employees will eventually think about a current issue of the company. Therefore, they organise working groups that use creative frameworks to think about new products, services or anything else of importance. The framework that is applied by in most cases is the Brainstorm. According to Alex Osborn the thing that distinguishes brainstorming from other types of group activity—was the absence of criticism and negative feedback.


Nowadays there are many researchers that claim that the very backbone of the Brainstorm activity is limiting the creative output. According to the New Yorker Article brainstorming groups slightly outperformed the groups given no instructions, but teams given the debate condition were the most creative by far. On average, they generated nearly twenty per cent more ideas. Another interesting research touches the group relationships in a brainstorming group. best. Brian Uzzi, a sociologist at Northwestern, has spent his career trying to find what the ideal composition of a team would look like by observing group dynamics of successful Broadway crews. According to Mr. Uzzi “The best Broadway teams, by far, were those with a mix of relationships. These teams had some old friends, but they also had newbies. This mixture meant that the artists could interact efficiently—they had a familiar structure to fall back on—but they also managed to incorporate some new ideas”

The two articles prove that a group of people generally achieves better results that just one person. Furthermore, they also prove the result of creative group process will also depends of the relationships in the team and thinking and criticizing rules applied.

Why 5 Percent Remains a Glass Ceiling for Female CEOs


While preparing for the todays assignment I was reading the business newspaper Bloomberg in order to find a qualitative analysis of a trending topic. I decided to visually present the article “Why 5% remains a glass ceiling for female CEOs”. The reason for choosing this topic is because I was genuinely surprised by the fact that only 5% of Fortune 500 companies had female CEOs. I did know that more CEOs are man, but because I of my previous experiences working in a company where both the CEO and CFO were female, I assumed that many companies had a diversified management team nowdays. I created in PowerPoint a picture of a business woman with for bubbles around her, filled with the most relevant parts of the article. With this picture I tried to illustrate a business woman speaking about the 4 most common stepstones for women becoming CEOs.  In addition to that I also created illustration of quantitative data supporting the picture above.


Preparing for Research – Using an Empathy Map

In order to attract more viewers for our client KLRU we decided to analyse a potentially new customer segment, that the company had problem reaching in earlier marketing campaigns, the Millennials. According to Wikipedia Millennials, also known as Generation Y or Gen Y, are the generational demographic cohort following Generation X and preceding Generation Z. There are no precise dates for when this cohort starts or ends; demographers and researchers typically use the early 1980s as starting birth years and the mid-1990s to early 2000s as ending birth years. Although many people still imagine millennials as very young and immature, the facts are that millennials make up 25% of the us population, 53% of millennial households already have children and millennials have a huge influence on the older generations (millennial marketing, 2018). So not only are Millennials easy to find online, but they have the largest combined spending power of any generation, and that is the reason many companies adapt their business models to better reach millennials and I believe KLRU should also adapt their marketing strategy in order to be a more attractive information channel for millennials. With the help of the empathy map framework we will try to get new insights into this customer segment.



  1. What does he or she think and feel?


Millennials are already young working professionals who care more about work life balance than the previous generations. For them the life next to the work often counts more then the work itself. Therefore, work is often not the major preoccupation for them, but sports, vacations, trips and hobbies. Most of the millennials have a perception of life that is focused on the individual and want to enjoy their life as much as possible. Millennials have no problem trying new, innovative brands and don’t express a feeling of loyalty. Millennials seek relevancy, therefore companies have to give them a reason to connect and return.

  1. What does he or she see?


According to the web page millennials marketing 46% of the millennials have more than 200 friends on Facebook. Because they are early adopters of new technologies, they also use other social media accounts where they again have many online friends. Furthermore, 70% of millennials feel a responsibility to share feedback after a good or bad experience (millennial marketing 2018). This means that the average millennial sees a lot of his or her information though social media, posts of his friends (which are often a large number) and gets a lot of his information from their feedbacks on their experiences.

  1. What does he or she say and do?


Millennials grew up in an era of technology, with access to unlimited amounts of information. Consequently, Millennials are used to receive answers fast and expect this also in real life. They want an instant feedback how they have done something, and also feel responsible to give feedback on their experiences. The often don’t say it out loud but use social media to communicate their message. They don’t have a strong feeling of privacy and expect that their voice will be heard by the public.

  1. What does he or she hear?


In the same way as millennials share their thoughts they also want to hear other people thoughts. There are four main influencers in their life: family, friends, bosses, trend setters. Most of the millennials look up to influencers and trend setters and idolize their behaviour because in today modern society they have fulfilled all the basic needs of the Maslow’s pyramid and now the try to reach self-fulfilment or deep cause. Since these goals of self-fulfilment are difficult to reach alone, they look for people for which they believe they have achieved something great and tend to follow them. I would say the parent are regarded as old and outdated and lose a lot of their influence. While their friends’ opinions are very important the definition of friend has changed. Since millennials have hundreds of online friends, I think they care more about the peer pressure then the opinion of close friends. Bosses also lost a lot of their influence since millennials don’t like direct commends and don’t want to do jobs for which they don’t see and challenging or for which they don’t think they have a purpose. This fact in combination with the impatient feedback expectations make them difficult to be managed.

  1. What are his or her pain points?

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Millennials don’t like to be labelled as one homogenic group but many different subgroups. Moreover, every member feels special and likes to be regarded as special and therefore expects a service that is tailor made for them. Half of the millennials surveyed by Forbes in their study “Understanding The Research On Millennial Shopping Behaviors “appreciate when brands make ads and social media relevant to them. Personalization and relevancy are key marketing tool to make this group happy. Another pain point is that older generations describe Millennials as entitled, irresponsible, flighty, immature and petulant. They are often characterized as unable to handle business and struggling in the real world.

  1. What does he or she hope to gain?


According to Forbes millennials had a few goals that every marketer should be aware. First of all, Millennials want their purchases to make them feel good. The brand must speak to them at this level and make them feel like they have made the right decision. Secondly, Millennials place value on experiences. Half of millennials prefer to spend their money on experiences over material things. Finally, Millennials want to feel relevant and give a meaningful contribution to the society, work or family. This is very important insight, because Millennials are not incentivized by material goods but experiences, good feelings and relevance of their actions.


Visualizing Ideas & Data – Journey Mapping

About Ben:Capture2

25 years old, young professional, graduated 2 years ago, works in a bank in Zagreb, Croatia. Loves sport, goes regularly to the gym and plays basketball. Interested in politics, sports (especially soccer) and is looking for some fun as a distraction from everyday work life.


– Idea spark

·        what was actually happening at this point: during a coffee break, Ben and his colleague Vlado discussed an article they were reading this morning. The article was describing the best vacation locations in Europe. After looking at the pictures they commented that it would be a cool idea to go on vacation together and visit some of the mentioned destinations.

·        what or who was the primary influencer – the online article about the best vacation locations is for sure one of the main influencing factors, since the nice holiday pictures evoked the wish to travel and already narrowed down the possibilities to 10 destination they recommended the most. Furthermore, Bens work colleague Vlado can be regarded as the second biggest influencer, since he seemed to be very hyped about the idea and for many days reminded Ben what a great time they will have.

·        what was their emotional response or sentiment at the point – they were very excited and happy. One of the reasons is that their everyday working life was not very interesting, and they had something they could look forward to. Secondly, none of them went abroad for vacation before and being able to choose from all these famous destinations was very exciting for them.

– Deciding who would come and/or handling inviting people on the trip

·        what was actually happening at this point – the next day they had to decide else they should invite. Both agreed that a group of 5 seemed optimal, because if they decided to rent a car, they would not be able to fit more then 5 people in it. But what they found out, is that most of their friends were in a relationship and already had some plans for the summer.

·        what or who was the primary influencer – Again Vlado can be regarded as the main influencer, since he was often short tempered and hat a clear opinion on who he likes and who he hates. On the other hand, Ben is chilled person and he get along very well with everybody. After some initial difficulties they found 2 other friends that loved the idea, however they did not find a fifth person.

·        what was their emotional response – Ben was a bit disappointed by the fact that they couldn’t find 5 people for the trip. They were also negatively surprised by how much time it took them to convince the other two guys to join, and that some friends, that they were sure would join, had other plans already.


– Deciding on what is their goal for the vacation

·        what was actually happening at this point – since they had a diverse group of two young professionals and two students, they had different interests they had to take in consideration. Some of the guys insisted that they had to go to a  place where they could take it easy at the beach, one guy wanted active holidays, most of them agreed it should be a party place and it should not be expensive.

·        what or who was the primary influencer – Vlado was the only person that had a car, which they would probably need if they want to save money. In addition, Vlado is an extrovert person and has to share his opinion on everything.

·        what was their emotional response – while Ben was happy to hear that a lot of the goals the other guys said, were also his goals e.g. party, he was worried whether he can find a place that will make everybody happy.


– Deciding on the exact location

·        what was actually happening at this point – it was a very intense afternoon where the 4 guys were bringing up their requirements regarding meals, excursions, free time and were looking for the best option to combine all. The final options were Greece, Malta, Spain, Portugal.

·        what or who was the primary influencer – The primary influencer was limited budget of one of the members, which was around 900€.

·        what was their emotional response – At the end of the days, the group decided for Greece and surprisingly everybody was in a good mood. Greece was affordable, hat plenty of beautiful beaches and outside activities. Furthermore, Greece was also reachable by car, which reduced the costs for 100€ compared to other transportation options, and everybody was happy about that.


– Post trip

·        what was actually happening at this point – reflection of the trip showed that Ben was overall happy with the vacation but regrets that he did not have enough outdoor activities.

·        what or who was the primary influencer – while looking at the pictures taken by him and his friends on Instagram, he tends forget the negative aspects and remember the positive.

·        what was their emotional response – the memories and pictures taken evoke a very positive feeling for Ben.


Learnings: one of the major learnings for me was the fact that besides classical advertisements as commercials, also other, more subtle, channels had a great influence on Bens experience. Although he ha was disappointed that he couldn’t do outdoor activities as volleyball and was annoyed by the number of teenagers at their resort, when he looked at the photos posted by him and his friends on Instagram, he forgets all the negative parts of trip.

Understanding Experiences

Initial situation

The following experience might not sound like it’s the end of the world, but for me the experience evoked a very negative emotional reaction. I was traveling from Croatia to the US, to visit New York before I begin my exchange semester in Austin. After landing in NY at midnight, being totally exhausted from the 14-hour trip, and having to take 2 “random” security checks, I was waiting for my luggage. After a while I was the only person waiting for luggage and I was told if the bag has not arrived until now, it will not arrive at all and that I should follow him. I was scared, angry, tired and literally running after the airport employee for who I believed that he was trying to run away from me.

Lost and found office

At the most hidden corner of the airport was the a lost and found counter with very unfriendly employees who were obviously upset for having to work the night shift. They wrote down my address and name and were not able to provide me with any other information. The experience was even worse for me since this was only the second time I was flying with an air plane, and although I thought it would never happen to me that from all people my luggage would be lost (according to the Air Travel Consumer Report issued by the U.S. Department of Transportation, you face less than a 1 percent chance that a major airline will misplace your bags) my mother insisted I had to take an insurance for the luggage. The insurance company instructed me to have the arriving airport fill out a form in case the luggage was lost. The employees refused to fill out anything saying that this in not their problem but the problem of the airline company, and thy are not allowed to do that. So, there I was in NY at 1 am, like in the old movies of European immigrants, alone in a big city with nothing with me except for my laptop suitcase, a few bucks in my wallet and half of a sandwich my mother made me. 


Reclaiming the luggage

I got an email from a third party (so not the airport, not the airline) that they are working on finding my luggage and that they would call me once it found. However, the telephone number stated in the email was not correct (the nice lady at the lost and found counter must have gotten it wrong) and there was no tel. number to call and of course my emails were not replied. I got a new US number, I tried to call Norwegian airlines multiple times. Every time I called I had to wait over one hour to get a customer support agent and receive no useful information. I started to be nervous since time was crucial, tomorrow I had to fligh to Austin. On the morning before my flight to Austin I called Norwegian airlines once more and finally received the information that I would receive my luggage in one hour. So, I rushed from Manhattan to Brooklyn where they would deliver the address. Since the delivery company did not arrive I called the airline again, and they said they made a mistake. The delivery company tried to deliver it the day before, but since there was no doorbell at my Airbnb apartment they left (the apartment and neighbourhood of my apartment is another story of emotional reactions).

Stressful happy end

After many calls I finally got the delivery company and asked them to deliver my bag to the airport before 5pm since that was the time I was flying to Austin. I arrived 4 hours earlier to the agreed terminal, just to be told by the employee that they did not receive my bag. I went myself to the warehouse and looked for my luggage, and luckily I found it, although I was told that it is not there for sure. 

Understanding the Experience



Applying the model learned in class I will analyse what made me hate Norwegian for the rest of my life and how to prevent situations as the one described above. The first step in good customer relationship management should be the empathises with the customers. To better understand the customer, experience the company should ask the following questions?

·       What does the customer think and feel when loosing luggage?
The customer feels afraid and scared. That’s why the first reference point should comfort the customer by saying that the bag will be found for sure and be transparent about what are the next steps. The customer should definitely not be left in doubts and unknowing what to do. 

·       What are the customers pain points?
Obviously, the missing bag, but also the uncertainty and missing transparency about the future steps.

·       What does the customers expect to gain?
Receive the luggage as soon as possible.

·       What does the customer see?
The customer is in a stress situation, the first point of reference should be a room with warm colours and welcoming employees. The customer should definitely not see a grey whole in the wall and angry employees.

·       What does the customer say and do?
Although every day customers loose luggage, the employees were surprised with my very predictable questions: when will I get my bag back? Where do I claim my insurance? Who will give me my luggage back? A well-designed process would anticipate these questions and provide answers.

·       What does the customer hear?
This question goes hand in hand with the questions above. The customer wants to hear answers on when the bag is right now, when will it be returned, who can give me updates? Furthermore, the customer wants to hear it now, not after having to call many different companies who all have different working times because the call centre is outsourced somewhere.

This simple Frameworks proves that even very bad customer experience such as losing the luggage, can be made more enjoyable for the customer if the company really tries to empathize with the customer.